Halogen-free Flame Retardant Cyclotriphosphazene and Phosphoramidate Chemistry for Cotton, PET and PP

Halogen-free Flame Retardant Cyclotriphosphazene and Phosphoramidate Chemistry for Cotton, PET and PP

Ahmed El-Shafei
Fiber and Polymer Science Program
College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606

Two novel generations of halogen-free phosphorus-based flame retardant monomers were developed and evaluated on cotton, nonwovens PET and PP. The first generation was based on phosphoramidate and the second on cyclotriphosphazene chemistry. Each monomer was graft polymerized into the substrates thermally or with the aid of a UV flood curing system. The influence of monomer concentration, photoinitiator concentration, UV exposure time and proximity of the specimen to the UV lamp on coating yield was evaluated through a design of experiment utilizing SAS JMP® Pro 10.

It was shown from the vertical flame test that cotton and nonwoven PET and PP treated with the phosphoramidate chemistry furnished self extinguishing properties with no melting or dripping in the case of PET of PP while cotton treated with monomers derived from cyclotriphosphazene chemistry did not ignite. Instead, a significant char structure formed in the area that was exposed to the flame. The structure-property relationships of monomers derived from the phosphoramidate and cyclotriphosphazene chemistry and flame retardancy mechanisms of the grafted polymers on the substrates will be discussed.

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How the College of Textiles is Enabling Future Leaders of the US Textiles Complex

Speaker: David Hinks
Presentation Title: How the College of Textiles is Enabling Future Leaders of the US Textiles Complex

Enabling the future success of its graduates is the single most important mission of a university. For those entering an industry – any industry – a key challenge is to help prepare students for a career environment that is so rapidly changing that no one can predict what it will look like in the mid- to long-term. In the case of textiles, rapid changes in consumer purchasing habits, demand for new differentiating technologies, improved environmental impact and reduced time to market, and revisions to government policies are driving changes in the industry.

These developments are providing new opportunities for adaptable graduates with strong technical education, high cultural competence, critical thinking skills and emotional intelligence, as well as a knowledge of, and appreciation for, the interplay of art and design with science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

New graduates at all levels can expect to see the course of their careers take more unexpected directions than in the past and they should be equipped to be as flexible as possible. Also, professionals without a formal textiles education are constantly entering the industry and these, too, need training. This is particularly relevant given the aging textiles workforce and the need for adequately prepared mid-career employees as well as new talent.

In the College of Textiles, in addition to serving the textiles, apparel and related industries by providing future leaders and engaging in research, we provide comprehensive professional education, product development and testing services via the Zeis Textiles Extension department. The professional education program has value to individuals without formal education in textiles, because in order to be successful in the industry they must learn the fundamentals of textiles. Companies have cited the multi-faceted support provided by the College as a key driver in their investment decisions in North Carolina and the US.

Discussed are approaches to enable the success of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals entering the textiles industry without formal textiles training. Also discussed is the important role for strong industry-university partnerships. With strong cooperation, the entire US textiles industry can be enhanced and enriched for the betterment of society.

David Hinks
College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, 1020 Main Campus Drive,
Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

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Active Textiles and Encapsulated Finishing Chemicals

Speaker: Troy Massey
Presentation Title: Active Textiles and Encapsulated Finishing Chemicals 

ACTIVE TEXTILES mean clothes that provide care, freshness, comfort and protection for you. Imagine that every time you put on your favorite garment it actually takes care of you. The principle is simple: Build active ingredients into the fabric of clothing so that with the natural movement of your body, the active ingredients are released. The active ingredients may keep your clothes fresh, moisturize your skin, protect you against mosquitos or protect you from harmful UV rays.

Microencapsulation is a very effective way of making sure active ingredients are released from your garment to achieve the desired effect. Microcapsules are infused and bound to fabrics to allow for various release rates depending on the intended effect (moisturizing, fragrance release, mosquito repellent). This is achieved by traditional textile application methods such as padding, exhausting and spraying. So, no special equipment is needed.

The result of bringing together leading fabric technology, decades of experience with health and beauty products and the power of nature itself, ACTIVE TEXTILES bring new possibilities to your fashion concepts and collections.

When are you going to get ACTIVE?

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Magali Brown – Biography

Magali Brown – Biography

Magali Brown
Graduate from University of Fukui (Ph.D. in Amenity Fiber)
R&D/QC manager, NICCA USA

Went to University in Lyon, France where I got my master degree in chemistry with a specialization in chemistry applied to textile. Started my Ph.D. in Amenity fiber after a year as assistant professor at the University of Fukui, Japan. Received my Ph.D. in 2010. Joined Nicca Chemical in Fukui, Japan right after graduation. Was transferred in April 2011 to NICCA USA where I was in charge of the development of new products for the textile. I have since then become in charge of customer technical support and the development of new products.

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Dr. Philip J. Brown – Biography


Phil Brown, an assistant professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Clemson University, joined the faculty in January 2002. He earned a BSc in 1987 and received a Ph.D. from The School of Textile Industries in Leeds in 1991.

After a few years of research work, including 1.5 years at Herriot Watt University as a teaching/research fellow, he went back to Leeds as a lecturer in the School of Textile Industries at Leeds University.

Phil’s current research interests include, but are not limited to, fiber spinning and the production of deep groove capillary surface channeled fibers, fabrication of polymeric photonic crystal fibers, the production and properties of hollow fiber membranes including examination of phase inversion conditions, the dry jet wet and wet spinning of fibers, electrospinning of fibers and nanofibers. Additional interests are in the broader areas of dyeing and finishing, including self cleaning fabrics and fibers, the crosslinking of synthetic fibers and the application of UV laser radiation to textile substrates.


Ph.D., University of Leeds, England, UK (1991)
B.S., University Leeds, England, UK (1987)

Research Areas

Polymer Membranes
Textile Chemistry
Photonic Fibers
Spinning, Electrospinning of Fibers
Melt Spinning of Multi-Component Materials
Dyeing & Finishing

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Ahmed El-Shafei – Biography

Dr. Ahmed El-Shafei – Biography

Dr. Ahmed El-Shafei is a Professor in the Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science Department in the College of Textiles at North Carolina State University (NCSU). He earned a Ph.D. in Fiber and Polymer Science and a Ph.D. in Chemistry both in 2002 from NCSU.

He joined NC State as a faculty member in 2008. His research interests span dye chemistry for medical and renewable energy applications, the chemistry and flame retardant mechanisms of novel halogen-free flame retardants, non-formaldehyde monomers for wrinkle-free cotton, fluorine-free fluid repellent chemistry for woven and nonwovens, sustainable dyeing and surface chemistry modification of fibers using atmospheric plasma and UV treatments. He is an author of more than 200 peer-review papers, patents, book and book chapters, national and international presentations.

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Tushar K. Ghosh – Biography

Tushar K. Ghosh, Ph. D. – Biography

Tushar K. Ghosh, Ph. D., is a Professor in the Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science Department at the College of Textiles, North Carolina State University. He has been deeply engaged in teaching and research in the area of fiber and polymer science in an academic environment for almost 30 years. His research interests over the years have spanned such areas as mechanics of fibrous structures, instrumentation, characterization and applications of fiber materials in technical applications, polymer nanocomposites, electroactive polymers, and biomimetic systems, among others. A continuing underlying focus of Dr. Ghosh’s research has been to improve the current understanding of functional applications of polymers and fibers. In recent years, his primary research focus has been to employ, adapt, and develop dielectric elastomers, a class of electroactive polymers, for novel applications including bio-inspired devices. Dr. Ghosh has received funding from NSF, ARO, DARPA, DOE, NTC, and many industrial sponsors. He has authored several book chapters and monographs, over 100 journal articles and over 150 conference presentations. Dr. Ghosh has been teaching courses on design and characterization of textile assemblies at both undergraduate and graduate levels. He was named Outstanding Teacher of the Year and selected for the Circle of Excellence by the National Textile Center. In 2007, he was the recipient of the Fiber Society’s Founder’s Award for outstanding contributions to the science and technology of fibrous materials.

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The Right Fluorine Free Durable Water Repellent for Your Application

Speaker: Magali Brown, Ph.D., NICCA
Presentation Title: The Right Fluorine Free Durable Water Repellent for Your Application

There are many difficulties that the Textile Industry is currently facing with the change of going from fluorinated chemistry to a fluorine free chemistry. There is also still a stigma regarding the performance of PFC-Free Durable Water Repellent due to the first generation of products was not reaching the water repellency level of C6 and had no oil repellency. The latter is still true but the water repellency performance is now on par with C6 as long as the textile material is adequately prepared to receive the right PFC-Free DWR finishing.
In that regard NICCA has spent a lot of efforts developing PFC-Free DWR that meet the multiple requirements that the Textile Industry and especially the Apparel Industry has been looking for. This presentation will explain what these chemistries are, how to choose the right one and how to make them perform the right way.


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Environmental and Health Considerations for Stain-Resistant Fabric

Speaker: Hardy Sullivan
Presentation Title: Environmental and Health Considerations for Stain-Resistant Fabric

Spill- and stain-resistant finishes impart useful properties to many types of fabric. In the case of upholstery, stain-resistance extends the useful life of fabric, reducing the need to produce replacements and improving customer satisfaction. However, apparel and home furnishing companies selling these fabrics are under attack from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), including Greenpeace. These organizations claim these products are “linked” to persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic fluorinated chemistries found in the environment, namely PFOS and PFOA. The objective of this presentation is to review the criticisms from NGOs and shed light on ways fluorinated repellents actually reduce manufacturers’ environmental footprint. Considerations include health, environmental contamination, product performance, and customer satisfaction.

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Dr. David Hinks – Biography

Dr. David Hinks – Biography

Dr. David Hinks is the Dean of the College of Textiles and Cone Mills Professor of Textile Chemistry at North Carolina State University. He joined NC State after completing his Ph.D and B.Sc. in Colour Chemistry at the University of Leeds in the U.K in 1993. After two years at Milliken & Company (1996-1998) as a research and development chemist, he returned to NC State as a faculty member in 1998. His research interests include color science and color management for the textile supply chain, green textile chemistry and forensic textiles.

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